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practice Wireless Leiden

Wireless Leiden

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Web address of the case:

Country of the case:




Posting Date:

21 December 2010

Last Edited Date:

10 January 2011


Huub Schuurmans (Wireless Leiden)
Wireless Leiden Logohuubs's picture
Editor's Choice 2010

Type of initiative

  • Project or service-imgProject or service

Case Abstract

The Wireless Leiden Foundation has established an open, inexpensive, fast wireless network for Leiden and its surrounding villages. It is an independent network, which technically links up seamlessly to the Internet, but can also be used for free local communication within the Leiden region.

Wireless Leiden is a non-profit organisation, operating completely with professional volunteers and aiming at infrastructure and not services. All our software, technological and organisational knowledge is freely available to others under an open source license.

Description of the case

Start date - End date
August 2002 (Ongoing)
Date operational
August 2002
Target Users
Business (industry) | Business (SME) | Citizen | Civil society
Target Users Description

Professional users / content providers:
During the rollout phase we have concentrated mainly on professional users:

  • Companies wanting a VPN (virtual private network) with their employees at home;
  • Schools with several locations;
  • Public library with several locations and stops for the library bus;
  • Homes for the elderly (interconnected administrative systems, connection with library and churches).

Home users:
Many people want to make a connection with Wireless Leiden from their homes, mainly to get free, fast Internet.

Tourists and business visitors:
Providing wireless Internet connectivity and location-based services to non-residents, especially from outside the Netherlands who do not have access to commercial wireless (UMTS) service.

Outreach to surrounding villages:
Many small villages surrounding Leiden want to join the Wireless Leiden initiative, mainly because there is no fast Internet connection available, other than via Wireless Leiden. In the villages of Jacobswoude, Benthuizen, Katwijk aan Zee, Kaag, Oegstgees and Leiderdorp nodes have been set up which are connected to the Wireless Leiden network.

Regional (sub-national)

Policy Context and Legal Framework

Project Size and Implementation

Type of initiative
IT infrastructures and products
Overall Implementation approach
Non-profit sector
Technology choice
Open source software
Funding source
Charity, voluntary contributions
Project size
Implementation: €49-299,000
Yearly cost:

Implementation and Management Approach

The Wireless Leiden Foundation has established a fast, open and inexpensive wireless community network for the Dutch city of Leiden and surrounding villages. Whilst similar initiatives exist in other cities, like Seattle, San Francisco, Portland and New York, we believe that Leiden has a unique approach with greater potential. We are building a local network, technically comparable to the Internet, but standing alone and functioning independently. It is fast, inexpensive, and extremely well suited for local communication and community Internet access. The unique character of our approach was recognised when the Foundation received the 2003 'Vosko Award' for network pioneers. It is one of the largest outdoor WiFi-networks in the world.

We are a non-profit foundation, and believe this to be essential for the success and managing expenses of the project. We do not build isolated hot spots; rather we set up wirelessly connected nodes. These nodes are the access points to the network for houses and offices in their direct surroundings. Also mobile users and visitors with a laptop can connect. For Internet connection via the network, it is not required that each and every node has an Internet connection itself. In theory, one gateway would suffice. Currently, several gateways are operational. Individual users can also share their Internet connection, not only with their direct neighbours, but also with people on the other side of town.

We want this local network to have easy and free access, both for making a connection, for delivering information and services over the network and for experimenting with new applications.

The project is built on enthusiasm and organisational ability. Expenses are kept low through using inexpensive hardware, open standards, open source software - and foremost volunteers: in a cooperative, non-profit and planned approach.

Research and Development:
The WiFi network of Wireless Leiden offers the unique possibility to develop and test new techniques and applications. That's why we work together with several research institutions, like the 'Centre for Technology and Innovation Management' (CeTIM), the Institute for Societal Innovation (IMI), the 'Leiden University School of Management' (LUSM) en the 'Leiden Institute of Advanced Computer Science' (LIACS). E.g. we have set up an advanced network management system in cooperation with LIACS.

Organisation of volunteers:
A group of professional volunteers with experience in and knowledge of a whole range of disciplines, like radio technology, network planning, innovation management and public relations, form the core of Wireless Leiden. Formally, we have established a foundation, rather than an association with members, in order to enable quick decision-making and minimise red tape. Since we don't have commercial interests, we can easily cooperate with commercial and non-commercial parties. We do stimulate and facilitate commercial activities around our network by others and as spin-offs. Several spin-offs have indeed sprung up already.

We publish our experiences and the know-how we've developed on our website www.wirelessleiden.nl (currently mainly in Dutch). True to the open source philosophy, we do not expect others to 'reinvent the wheel'. We encourage serious and enthusiastic people in other cities to copy our project and provide feedback.

Wireless Leiden organises - except on occasions, published on the website - a walk-in consultancy every Wednesday evening. Anybody who wants to know more about Wireless Leiden, technical details or anything else, or anybody who wants to contact us for any reason is more than welcome.

Technology solution

Cooperative framework, social network:
The expenses of a WiFi network can be minimal, partly because no licence costs have to be paid. WiFi uses a free frequency band: anybody can use it. Of course this advantage is also a disadvantage, as one person's signal is another person's noise, so the risk of WiFi failing due to its very success lurks. Hence, a coordinated approach is required. Also, a coherent network is much more valuable for all users compared to individual wireless solutions. Take the example of a company with two offices in town. Without a line of sight, the offices cannot be interconnected with a direct WiFi connection. However, the offices can become interconnected via the Wireless Leiden network, and not only that, they are also connected to many other locations in town.

Our approach aims to make it more attractive for each interested party to join the network, rather then trying to WiFi on their own. Hence our appeal to companies, the university, the city government, organisations and citizens to join.

A cooperative, non-profit approach also enables free access to strategic locations for placing the nodes. In contrast, a for-profit company would be asked to pay for rooftop access.

Almost all our expenses are for hardware for the nodes, and we have been successful in securing sponsors to pay for the nodes in exchange for naming the node after them, which works quite well.

We believe that a non-profit approach to the WiFi-infrastructure is more sustainable: the WiFi frequency band is a shared medium, nobody has a monopoly claim, and cooperation is required. Commercial WiFi-infrastructure providers are not always willing to work together, whereas cooperating with Wireless Leiden almost always results in win-win situations.

Basic network structure:
Our approach has been to first realise a basis network infrastructure, aiming to cover the whole city. We have laid a 'grid' of 'ideal' locations for nodes over the city map, based on an interlink distance of about 800 meters (about 0.5 miles). We try to place a real node close to the 'ideal' location, but that of course also depends on the possibilities offered by users and participating companies and organisations.

Impact, innovation and results


The main impact / result is the provision of connectivity for people who do not have other means of connecting to the internet: i.e. lower income groups, people 'on the move', tourists.

Track record of sharing

All our knowledge and developments of technology and organisation are freely available, from our websites. We are also providing assistance to other initiatives. Software is released under an Open Source license. It is also possible to use the services of consultants on a commercial basis.

Lessons learnt

The main challenge to copy our approach is organisational: how to set up a local organisation and get the support of all the actors that should be involved.

A cooperative effort is the best (maybe only?) way to get a WiFi network.

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